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Answers we need.........


We have tons of data from ER but almost nothing for EL. This seems totally weird and unbalanced to me as almost every teacher encourages 'conversation' (and thereby listening) as a way to improve one's English. Everything we know about ER's benefits (for vocab learning, for overall motivation, for language consolidation, to build fluency etc etc etc) need to be confirmed (or rejected) for EL. All the canonical work done in ER needs to be mirrored with EL. E.g.

What's the uptake of vocabulary from EL?
What known/unknown word ratio facilitates this?
How much listening is needed?
How does one's EL ability develop?
What prevents/ encourages comprehension in fluent listening?
How do students segment the sound stream in EL?